Infiltration of new tissue areas requires that a mammalian cell overcomes the physical and biochemical barrier of the surrounding extracellular matrix. Cell migration during embryonic development, and growth, invasion and dispersal of metastatic tumor cells depend to a large extent on the controlled degradation of extracellular matrix components. Localized degradation of the surrounding matrix is seen at defined adhesive (podosomes) and/or protrusive (invadopodia) locations in a variety of normal cells and aggressive carcinoma cells, suggesting that these membrane-associated cellular devices have a central role in mediating polarized migration in cells that cross-tissue boundaries. Here, we will discuss the recent advances and developments in this field, and provide our provisional outlook into the future understanding of the principles of focal extracellular matrix degradation by podosomes and invadopodia. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Useful keywords (using NLM MeSH Indexing)
Cell Surface Extensions/metabolism
Cell Surface Extensions/physiology*
Cell Surface Extensions/ultrastructure
Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
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