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Effect of different handgrip angles on work distribution during hand cycling at submaximal power levels.
Krämer, C; Schneider, G; Böhm, H; Klöpfer-Krämer, I; Senner, V;
Ergonomics. 2009; 52(10): 127-186.
Full papers/articles (Journal)


Klöpfer-Krämer Isabella


The effect of different handle angles on work distribution during hand cycling was determined. Able-bodied subjects performed hand cycling at 20% of maximum power level (mean (SD) power level: 90.0 (25.8) W) at a cadence of 70 rpm using handle angles of +/-30 degrees, +/-15 degrees and 0 degrees. The handle angle had a significant effect on work during the pull down (p < 0.001) and lift up (p = 0.005) sector, whereby the highest work was performed with handle angles of +30 degrees and -15 degrees respectively. The cycle sector had a significant effect on work (p < 0.001) and significantly (p = 0.002) higher work was performed in the pull down sector (25% higher than mean work over one cycle) as compared to the lift up sector (30% lower than mean work over one cycle). Therefore, a fixed handle angle of +30 degrees is suggested to be optimal for power generation. The results of this study help to optimise the handbike-user interface. A more pronated handle angle compared to the one conventionally used was found to improve the performance of hand cycling and thereby the mobility of disabled people.

Useful keywords (using NLM MeSH Indexing)



Equipment Design/instrumentation*


Hand Strength*

Human Engineering



Physical Exertion/physiology*

Young Adult

Find related publications in this database (Keywords)

hand cycling
handle angle
work distribution