To assess prostate cancer (PCa) detection and prediction by combining the in-bore magnetic resonance imaging-guided transrectal targeted prostate biopsy (MRGB) with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) parameters and the Prostate Health Index (PHI) in case of negative 12-core standard biopsy.
A total of 112 men (2014-2016) underwent 3-T multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent MRGB of Prostate Imaging-Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) lesions 3-5. Ancillary PSA parameters (PSA ratio [%fPSA] and PSA density [PSAD]) and the PHI and PHI density (PHID) were recorded. With these parameters in combination with MRGB, PCa prediction was calculated.
The most common lesions biopsied were PI-RADS 4 (66%), located in the peripheral zone (64%), in the middle (58%) and anterior (65%) sections of the prostate, and 13 mm (IQR 10-15) in size. PCa was found in 62 (55%) patients (28% Gleason score ≥7). PSAD (0.15 vs 0.21; P = .0051), %fPSA (16 vs 13; P = .0191), PHI (45 vs 69; P < .0001), PHID (0.7 vs 1.5; P < .0001), and prostate volume (56 mL vs 45 mL; P = .0073) were significantly different in patients with PCa and those without PCa. PHI and PHID were the strongest predictors of PCa with areas under the curve of 0.79 and 0.77, respectively. Using optimal thresholds of 59 and 0.79, PHI and PHID were 69% and 84% sensitive and 82% and62% specific for PCa, respectively.
Following negative standard biopsy of the prostate, the MRGB achieved an overall PCa detection rate of 55% in patients with PI-RADS 3-5 lesions. By considering PHI and PHID, 82% and 62% of unnecessary biopsies could have been avoided, failing to detect 31% and 16% of cancers.