Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. In the future, a significant further increase in the incidence of prostate cancer is expected. Therefore, improvement of prostate cancer diagnosis is a main topic of diagnostic imaging. The systematic prostate biopsy ("ten-core biopsy") is now the "gold standard" of prostate cancer diagnosis but may miss prostate cancer. Contrast-enhanced colour Doppler ultrasound (US) and elastography are evolving methods that may dramatically change the role of US for prostate cancer diagnosis. Contrast-enhanced colour Doppler US allows for investigations of the prostate blood flow and consequently for prostate cancer visualization and therefore for targeted biopsies. Comparisons between systematic and contrast-enhanced targeted biopsies have shown that the targeted approach detects more cancers and cancers with higher Gleason scores with a reduced number of biopsy cores. Furthermore, elastography, a new US technique for the assessment of tissue elasticity has been demonstrated to be useful for the detection of prostate cancer, and may further improve prostate cancer staging. Therefore, contrast-enhanced colour Doppler US and elastography may have the potential to improve prostate cancer detection, grading and staging. However, further clinical trials will be needed to determine the promise of these new US advances.
Useful keywords (using NLM MeSH Indexing)
Sensitivity and Specificity
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
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