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The role of calcium in cell shrinkage and intracellular alkalinization by bradykinin in Ha-ras oncogene expressing cells.
Wöll, E; Ritter, M; Scholz, W; Häussinger, D; Lang, F;
FEBS Lett. 1993; 322(3): 261-265.
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In ras oncogene expressing cells, bradykinin leads to intracellular alkalinization by activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger. This effect is paralleled by oscillatory increase of intracellular calcium activity and cell shrinkage. Staurosporine (1 mumol/l) is not sufficient to prevent bradykinin induced intracellular alkalinization, thus pointing to a protein kinase C independent pathway for the activation of Na+/H+ exchange. The present study has been performed to elucidate, whether the increase of intracellular calcium contributes to cell shrinkage and activation of the Na+/H+ exchanger. To this end, the effects of the calcium ionophore ionomycin have been tested. Ionomycin leads to a dose dependent increase of intracellular calcium activity. At 100 nmol/l ionomycin intracellular calcium is increased from 114 +/- 17 nmol/l to 342 +/- 24 nmol/l (n = 9), a value within the range of intracellular calcium concentrations following application of bradykinin. The calcium increase is paralleled by a decrease of cell volume by 12 +/- 2% (n = 5) and an increase of intracellular pH from 6.78 +/- 0.02 to 6.90 +/- 0.03 (n = 11), values similar to those following application of bradykinin. The alkalinizing effect of ionomycin is completely abolished in the presence of the novel Na+/H+ exchange inhibitor HOE 694 (10 mumol/l), but is not inhibited by 1 mumol/l staurosporine. Inhibition of K+ and Cl- channels by barium (5 mmol/l) and ochratoxin-A (5 mumol/l) prevents both ionomycin induced cell shrinkage and protein kinase C independent intracellular alkalinization. It is concluded that bradykinin leads to intracellular alkalinization mainly by increasing intracellular calcium concentration. Calcium triggers calcium sensitive K+ channels, and presumably Cl-channels, the subsequent loss of cellular KCl leads to cell shrinkage which, in turn, activates Na+/H+ exchange.

Useful keywords (using NLM MeSH Indexing)

3T3 Cells




Carrier Proteins/metabolism*

Cell Size/drug effects

Cell Size/physiology

Genes, ras*

Hydrogen-Ion Concentration

Ion Channels/metabolism



Potassium Chloride/metabolism

Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter

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