The developmental course of antibodies produced after a SARS-CoV-2 infection has been insufficiently investigated so far. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels against the viral nucleocapsid- and spike-protein among Austrian blood donors as a representative group of a supposedly healthy population within the first year after a SARS-CoV-2 infection. The impact of age, sex, vaccination status, AB0-blood group and awareness about the infection was evaluated. Our study shows that the level of anti-N antibodies is declining, while anti-S antibody levels remain stable. Antibodies detected were functional in vitro. Age, sex and blood group do not influence antibody dynamics. However, blood group AB shows significantly lower antibody levels and in vitro functionality compared to other blood groups. Our data reveal that one out of five individuals was not aware of a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and that the disease course neither affects the level of antibody production nor the in vitro functionality. We also found that 14% of participants show persisting COVID-19-related symptoms for up to nine months. Our results provide valuable insights into the dynamics of the immune response after a SARS-CoV-2 infection in a representative cohort of adult blood donors in Central Europe.
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