Synthetic bones for biomechanical testing and surgeon training have become more important due to their numerous advantages compared to human bones. Several bone models are already available on the market, but most of them do not reflect the full range of versatile properties that characterize human bone like population-level influences, size, stiffness, bone-implant-interface or morphometry. Thus, the objectives of this study were to develop synthetic trabecular bone surrogates from polyurethane and varying additives and to determine their elastic and plastic mechanical compressive and additionally morphometric properties. Another aim was to investigate the influence of varying additives on aforementioned properties and finally compare the results with published data from human trabecular bone. Additives used were blowing agents to create a porous structure, mineral fillers to manipulate the basic polyurethane resin, and cell stabilizers to achieve an open porous composition. Mechanical properties were obtained from static compression tests until failure while morphometric analysis was carried out using microcomputed tomography. Thereby, the blowing agent showed the strongest influence on mechanical and morphometric properties with mean Young"s moduli ranging from 627 ± 37 MPa (0% blowing agent) to 154 ± 15 MPa (0.25% blowing agent) while the variation of mineral filler content resulted in small standard deviations of approximately 10-20 MPa with a constant proportion of blowing agent. The achieved mechanical properties of the developed synthetic bones, such as the Young"s modulus, ultimate stress and yield stress were in accordance with human trabecular bone, while yield strain for all groups was noticeably higher compared to human trabecular bone. Additionally, morphometric analysis showed results indicating similar morphometry of the custom-made synthetic bone and human cancellous bone. Although recreating bone structures in physiological conditions is not simple, the results of the current study show the possibility of developing synthetic bone materials with characteristics like human trabecular bone.
Find related publications in this database (Keywords)Bone biomechanics