Objective: To identify computed tomography (CT) findings of purulent infections in ancient Egyptian child mummies.*** nbsp;Materials: Whole-body CT examination of 21 ancient Egyptian child mummies from German (n = 18), Italian (n = 1), and Swiss museums (n = 2).*** nbsp;Methods: CT examinations were evaluated for estimation of age at death and sex of the children. CT examinations were systematically assessed for any CT findings of purulent infection.*** nbsp;Results: The estimated age at death of the children ranged from about one year to the age of 12-14 years (mean 4.8 years). Twelve children were assessed as male, seven as female and in two sex was indeterminate. Three out of 21 child mummies (14.3%) had radiological evidence of purulent infections. In one mummy, a bandage-like structure at the right lower leg was detected that most likely represented a dressing of a skin lesion.*** nbsp;Conclusions: This study appears to be the first to describe radiologically visualized structures consistent with dried pus in ancient Egyptian mummies. This study also appears to be the first to physically demonstrate an original ancient Egyptian dressing.*** nbsp;Significance: These cases may serve as models for further paleopathological investigation. The evidence of an original dressing contributes to our knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine.*** nbsp;Limitations: CT was used as the only examination method as sampling of the wrapped mummies was not possible.*** nbsp;Suggestions for further research: Radiological-pathological correlation in mummies in which physical sampling is available may reveal further insights into purulent infections in ancient Egypt.
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