100x using tangential flow filtration (TFF) and separated AML-derived soluble factors and cells in parallel. EVs were characterized by electron microscopy, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry, confirming the double-membrane morphology, purity and identity. AML-EVs showed significant enrichment of immune response and leukemia-related pathways in tandem mass-tag proteomics and a significant dose-dependent inhibition of T cell proliferation, which was not observed with AML cells or their soluble factors. Furthermore, AML-EVs dose-dependently reduced NK cell lysis of third-party K-562 leukemia targets. This emphasizes the peculiar role of AML-EVs in leukemia immune escape and indicates novel EV-based targets for therapeutic interventions.
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