Vasculitis affecting the nervous system is a rare disease that can not only present with nonspecific initial symptoms, but also run a severe course without accurate treatment. Although improvements have been achieved, diagnosis of vasculitis remains challenging, because many classification criteria are unspecific or inconclusive with regard to central nervous system (CNS) manifestations. Currently, beside an isolated primary CNS vasculitis, several systemic types of vasculitis are known to affect the nervous system. In this review, we provide an overview of the pathophysiology, current therapeutic guidelines, and highlight novel treatment strategies for CNS vasculitis.
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