Microbial biofilms, which are elaborate and highly resistant microbial aggregates formed on surfaces or medical devices, cause two-thirds of infections and constitute a serious threat to public health. Immunocompromised patients, individuals who require implanted devices, artificial limbs, organ transplants, or external life support and those with major injuries or burns, are particularly prone to become infected. Antibiotics, the mainstay treatments of bacterial infections, have often proven ineffective in the fight against microbes when growing as biofilms, and to date, no antibiotic has been developed for use against biofilm infections. Antibiotic resistance is rising, but biofilm-mediated multidrug resistance transcends this in being adaptive and broad spectrum and dependent on the biofilm growth state of organisms. Therefore, the treatment of biofilms requires drug developers to start thinking outside the constricted "antibiotics" box and to find alternative ways to target biofilm infections. Here, we highlight recent approaches for combating biofilms focusing on the eradication of preformed biofilms, including electrochemical methods, promising antibiofilm compounds and the recent progress in drug delivery strategies to enhance the bioavailability and potency of antibiofilm agents.
Useful keywords (using NLM MeSH Indexing)
Bacterial Infections/drug therapy
Drug Delivery Systems
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
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