Vaccination is an effective means to prevent infectious diseases including tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), an emerging Flavivirus infection. There is, however, only limited knowledge about risk of vaccination failure, the disease course and the challenges for work-up and care. Of note, there is evidence that patients with breakthrough disease experience a more severe disease course. We report the case of a previously healthy 49-year-old woman who developed severe myeloradiculitis caused by the TBE virus despite receiving a complete cycle of primary immunization and booster vaccinations within the recommended timeframe. The disease course was characterized by progressive tetraparesis, pain and bladder dysfunction and necessitated intensive care unit admission (ICU) and the escalation of pain management. This case raises awareness for the recognition of breakthrough disease in younger patients and reinforces the need to develop measures to identify patients with insufficient protection.
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