The term long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) describes non protein-coding transcripts with a length greater than 200 base pairs. The ongoing discovery, characterization and functional categorization of lncRNAs has led to a better understanding of the involvement of lncRNAs in diverse biological and pathological processes including cancer. Aberrant expression of specific lncRNA species was demonstrated in various cancer types and associated with unfavorable clinical characteristics. Recent studies suggest that lncRNAs are also involved in the development and progression of biliary tract cancer, a rare disease with high mortality and limited therapeutic options. In this review, we summarize current findings regarding the manifold roles of lncRNAs in biliary tract cancer and give an overview of the clinical and molecular consequences of aberrant lncRNA expression as well as of underlying regulatory functions of selected lncRNA species in the context of biliary tract cancer.
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