Objective: Interictal high resolution (HR-) electric source imaging (ESI) and magnetic source imaging (MSI) are non-invasive tools to aid epileptogenic zone localization in epilepsy surgery candidates. We carried out a systematic review on the diagnostic accuracy and quality of evidence of these modalities. Methods: Embase, Pubmed and the Cochrane database were searched on 13 February 2017. Diagnostic accuracy studies taking post-surgical seizure outcome as reference standard were selected. Quality appraisal was based on the QUADAS-2 framework. Results: Eleven studies were included: eight MSI (n = 267), three HR-ESI (n = 127) studies. None was free from bias. This mostly involved: selection of operated patients only, interference of source imaging with surgical decision, and exclusion of indeterminate results. Summary sensitivity and specificity estimates were 82% (95% CI: 75-88%) and 53% (95% CI: 37-68%) for overall source imaging, with no statistical difference between MSI and HR-ESI. Specificity is higher when partially concordant results were included as non-concordant (p < 0.05). Inclusion of indeterminate test results as non-concordant lowered sensitivity (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Source imaging has a relatively high sensitivity but low specificity for identification of the epileptogenic zone. Significance: We need higher quality studies allowing unbiased test evaluation to determine the added value and diagnostic accuracy of source imaging in the presurgical workup of refractory focal epilepsy. (C) 2019 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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