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Forschungsdatenbank PMU-SQQUID

Characterization of an artificial skull cap for cranio-maxillofacial surgery training
Hollensteiner, M; Furst, D; Augat, P; Schrodl, F; Esterer, B; Gabauer, S; Hunger, S; Malek, M; Stephan, D; Schrempf, A
J MATER SCI-MATER M. 2018; 29(9): 135
Originalarbeiten (Zeitschrift)


Augat Peter
Hollensteiner Marianne
Schrödl Falk
Stephan Daniel


Cranial grafts are favored to reconstruct skeletal defects because of their reduced resorption and their histocompatibility. Training possibilities for novice surgeons include the "learning by doing" on the patient, specimens or simulators. Although the acceptance of simulators is growing, the major drawback is the lack of validated bone models. The aim of this study was to create and validate a realistic skull cap model and to show superiority compared to a commercially available skull model. Characteristic forces during machinery procedures were recorded and thickness parameters from the bony layers were obtained. The thickness values of the bone layers of the developed parietal bone were comparable to the human ones. Differences between drilling and sawing forces of human and artificial bones were not detected using statistical analysis. In contrast the parameters of the commercially available skull model were significantly different. However, as a result, a model-based simulator for tabula externa graft lift training, consisting of a brain, skull bone cap and covering soft tissues was created. This simulator enables the training of all procedural steps of a "split thickness graft lift". In conclusion, an artificial skull cap suitable for parietal graft lift training was manufactured and validated against human parietal bones.Axial tool insertion forces were identified as suitable parameter to validate haptics of artificial bone materials compared to human bone. Poylurethane edited with mineral fillers and blowing agents can realisitcally mimic skull bones. mu CT images prove the realistic thickness of all bone layers. Realistic haptic performance of artificial skull caps confirmed their suitability for training in the field of cranio-maxillofacial surgery.