Surgical skills can be improved through practical exercise. The use of specimens, human as well as animal, or live animals for surgical training is limited due to ethical concerns. Drawbacks of simulators are costs, fidelity and creditibility. Thus, simulators must be evaluated objectively to determine their validity before they can be used as teaching modalities. The aim of this study was to verify the face content and construct validity of a novel model-based simulator for lifting tabula externa transplants from the parietal skull.
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