Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency. For diagnostic purposes EEG is mandatory when motor phenomena are absent or when a single seizure evolves into SE with impaired consciousness. The EEG may show focal or generalized status patterns, which must be distinguished from encephalopathies. Initially benzodiazepines are recommended; lorazepam is the drug of choice. When the SE persists, phenytoin, valproate, levetiracetam, lacosamide, and phenobarbital are administered. The choice depends on the underlying comorbidities. In this phase, only phenytoin is licensed. A generalized tonic-clonic status which is refractory is then treated with anesthetics including midazolam, disoprivan, or thiopental. The goal is to achieve burst suppression in the EEG and coadministration of antiepileptic drugs.
Useful keywords (using NLM MeSH Indexing)
Emergency Medical Services/methods*
Status Epilepticus/drug therapy*
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