With the exception of target site mutations, insecticide resistance mechanisms in the principle malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, remains largely uncharacterized in Burkina Faso. Here we detected high prevalence of resistance in Vallée du Kou (VK) to pyrethroids, DDT and dieldrin, moderate level for carbamates and full susceptibility to organophosphates. High frequencies of L1014F kdr (75%) and Rdl (87%) mutations were observed showing strong correlation with pyrethroids/DDT and dieldrin resistance. The frequency of ace1R mutation was low even in carbamate resistant mosquitoes. Microarray analysis identified genes significantly over-transcribed in VK. These include the cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6P3 and CYP6Z2, previously associated with pyrethroid resistance. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis suggested that elevated neurotransmitter activity is associated with resistance, with the over-transcription of target site resistance genes such as acetylcholinesterase and the GABA receptor. A rhodopsin receptor gene previously associated with pyrethroid resistance in Culex pipiens pallens was also over-transcribed in VK. This study highlights the complex network of mechanisms conferring multiple resistance in malaria vectors and such information should be taken into account when designing and implementing resistance control strategies.
Useful keywords (using NLM MeSH Indexing)
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism
Insect Vectors/drug effects
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