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Forschungsdatenbank PMU-SQQUID

A prospective analysis of injury rates, patterns and causes in Cliff and Splash Diving.
Ernstbrunner, L; Runer, A; Siegert, P; Ernstbrunner, M; Becker, J; Freude, T; Resch, H; Moroder, P;
Injury. 2017; 48(10):2125-2131
Originalarbeiten (Zeitschrift)


Becker Johannes
Ernstbrunner Lukas
Freude Thomas
Resch Herbert


Information about injuries and its differences in Cliff Diving (CD) and Splash Diving (SD) are unknown. It was the aim to analyse (1) injury rates, patterns and causes; (2) differences (in injuries) between both disciplines; and to (3) identify targets for future injury prevention interventions.
From April to November 2013, 81 cliff and 51 splash divers were prospectively surveyed with an encrypted, monthly e-mail-based questionnaire.
During a total of 7857h diving with an average diving height of 13 (±7)m, an overall injury rate of 7.9 injuries/1000h of sport exposure was reported. Cliff divers most commonly suffered from injuries of the foot and ankle (18%; n=24) and neck and cervical spine (14%; n=19). In SD, the lower limb (52%; n=43) and lower back (23%; n=19) were most frequently involved. In 79% (n=49) of the cases, the injury happened while entering the water. Cliff divers were in 52% (n=15) of the injuries in a feet-first and in 14% (n=4) in a head-first position. Splash divers were in 45% (n=9) of the injuries in a back- or buttocks-first position. Most of the injuries were bruises (47%; n=104) and muscle strains (13%; n=28). The injury risk during practice was significantly higher than in competition (11.3 vs. 4.5 injuries/1000h; OR 2.5; p=0.001). The injury risk of experts (15.4/1000h exposure) was significantly higher than in professionals (6.3/1000h exposure; OR 2.4; 95% CI, 3.3-1.9; p<0.001), although the average diving height was significantly higher in professionals (19m±8 vs. 12m±6; p<0.001). Significantly more professionals performed dryland training compared to experts (p=0.006).
Most of the injuries are related to the water entry. The entry position plays a key role in injury patterns with pursuant differences comparing CD with SD. Although most of the injuries involved soft-tissue only, severe injuries have been reported. Targets for future injury prevention strategies include protection for the increased impaction at entry; adaption of the diving conditions in practice to those in competition; dryland training courses; and instruction of non-professional divers to teach appropriate diving techniques.

Find related publications in this database (Keywords)

Injury surveillance
Sports injury
Cliff diving
Splash diving