Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is a rare but disabling disorder caused by a wide spectrum of conditions. Given the lack of randomized-controlled trials, contemporary treatment concepts are adapted from guidelines for cerebral ischemia, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and acute traumatic spinal cord injury. In addition, patients with SCI are at risk for several potentially life-threatening but preventable systemic and neurologic complications. Notably, there is emerging evidence from preclinical studies for the use of neuroprotection in acute ischemic injury of the spinal cord. In this review, we discuss the current state of the art for the therapy and prevention of SCI and highlight potential emerging treatment concepts awaiting translational adoption.