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Forschungsdatenbank PMU-SQQUID

A calcium-accumulating region, CAR, in the channel Orai1 enhances Ca2+ permeation and SOCE-induced gene transcription.
Frischauf, I; Zayats, V; Deix, M; Hochreiter, A; Jardin, I; Muik, M; Lackner, B; Svobodová, B; Pammer, T; Litviňuková, M; Sridhar, AA; Derler, I; Bogeski, I; Romanin, C; Ettrich, RH; Schindl, R;
SCI SIGNAL. 2015; 8(408): ra131
Originalarbeiten (Zeitschrift)

PMU-Autor/inn/en

Hochreiter Anna

Abstract

The Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) channel mediates Ca(2+) influx in a plethora of cell types, thereby controlling diverse cellular functions. The channel complex is composed of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-sensing protein, and Orai1, a plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel. Channels composed of STIM1 and Orai1 mediate Ca(2+) influx even at low extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. We investigated whether the activity of Orai1 adapted to different environmental Ca(2+) concentrations. We used homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations to predict the presence of an extracellular Ca(2+)-accumulating region (CAR) at the pore entrance of Orai1. Furthermore, simulations of Orai1 proteins with mutations in CAR, along with live-cell experiments, or simulations and electrophysiological recordings of the channel with transient, electrostatic loop3 interacting with loop1 (the site of CAR) determined that CAR enhanced Ca(2+) permeation most efficiently at low external Ca(2+) concentrations. Consistent with these results, cells expressing Orai1 CAR mutants exhibited impaired gene expression stimulated by the Ca(2+)-activated transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). We propose that the Orai1 channel architecture with a close proximity of CAR to the selectivity filter, which enables Ca(2+)-selective ion permeation, enhances the local extracellular Ca(2+) concentration to maintain Ca(2+)-dependent gene regulation even in environments with relatively low Ca(2+)concentrations. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.