In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami.
A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami.
Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis.
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