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Intravenous S-ketamine does not inhibit alveolar fluid clearance in a septic rat model.
Fastner, C; Mairbäurl, H; Weber, NC; van der Sluijs, K; Hackl, F; Hotz, L; Dahan, A; Hollmann, MW; Berger, MM;
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11): e112622
Originalarbeiten (Zeitschrift)


Berger Marc Moritz


Miosis occurs following exposure to toxins that decrease the sympathomimetic tone, increase the cholinergic tone, or exert sedative-hypnotic effects, but has not been reported in insulin poisoning. A 64-year- old woman without co-morbidities was found unconscious next to an empty insulin pen. Her Glasgow Coma Scale was 3 with absent reflexes, bilateral reactive miosis, and injection marks across the abdominal wall. The patient was endotracheally intubated, mechanically ventilated, and transferred to this hospital. At admission, the blood glucose level was 34 mg/dL. Glasgow Coma Scale remained at 3, with persistent bilateral reactive miosis. The toxicology screening was negative for ethanol, barbiturates, tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazines, amphetamines, cannabinoids, salicylates, acetaminophen, and cocaine. Cranial computed tomography with angiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) did not show any structural brain lesions. Intravenous glucose was continued at 6-14 g/h for 3 days. On repeated neurological examinations, the patient remained deeply comatose, with partial loss of cranial nerve function. Bilateral reactive miosis persisted for 4 days. From day 5 on, the patient awoke progressively. At discharge, the patient was fully alert and orientated, without a focal neurological deficit. Prolonged bilateral reactive miosis can be a clinical symptom accompanying metabolic encephalopathy in severe insulin poisoning. Functional impairment of the pons due to relative hypoperfusion during hypoglycemia may serve as a reasonable pathophysiologic explanation for this phenomenon.
We previously demonstrated that intratracheally administered S-ketamine inhibits alveolar fluid clearance (AFC), whereas an intravenous (i.v.) bolus injection had no effect. The aim of the present study was to characterize whether continuous i.v. infusion of S-ketamine, yielding clinically relevant plasma concentrations, inhibits AFC and whether its effect is enhanced in acute lung injury (ALI) which might favor the appearance of i.v. S-ketamine at the alveolar surface. AFC was measured in fluid-instilled rat lungs. S-ketamine was administered i.v. over 6 h (loading dose: 20 mg/kg, followed by 20 mg/kg/h), or intratracheally by addition to the instillate (75 µg/ml). ALI was induced by i.v. lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 7 mg/kg). Interleukin (IL)-6 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-3 were measured by ELISA in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Isolated rat alveolar type-II cells were exposed to S-ketamine (75 µg/ml) and/or LPS (1 mg/ml) for 6 h, and transepithelial ion transport was measured as short circuit current (ISC). AFC was 27±5% (mean±SD) over 60 min in control rats and was unaffected by i.v. S-ketamine. Tracheal S-ketamine reduced AFC to 18±9%. In LPS-treated rats, AFC decreased to 16±6%. This effect was not enhanced by i.v. S-ketamine. LPS increased IL-6 and CINC-3 in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In alveolar type-II cells, S-ketamine reduced ISC by 37% via a decrease in amiloride-inhibitable sodium transport. Continuous administration of i.v. S-ketamine does not affect rat AFC even in endotoxin-induced ALI. Tracheal application with direct exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to S-ketamine decreases AFC by inhibition of amiloride-inhibitable sodium transport.