BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
Medical therapy of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) targets smooth muscle contraction in the prostate, or prostate growth. However, current therapeutic options are insufficient. Here, we investigated the role of Rac in the control of smooth muscle tone in human prostates and growth of prostate stromal cells.
Experiments were performed using human prostate tissues from radical prostatectomy and cultured stromal cells (WPMY-1). Expression of Rac was examined by Western blot and fluorescence staining. Effects of Rac inhibitors (NSC23766 and EHT1864) on contractility were assessed in the organ bath. The effects of Rac inhibitors were assessed by pull-down, cytotoxicity using a cell counting kit, cytoskeletal organization by phalloidin staining and cell growth using an 5-ethynyl-2"-deoxyuridine assay.
Expression of Rac1-3 was observed in prostate samples from each patient. Immunoreactivity for Rac1-3 was observed in the stroma, where it colocalized with the smooth muscle marker, calponin. NSC23766 and EHT1864 significantly reduced contractions of prostate strips induced by noradrenaline, phenylephrine or electrical field stimulation. NSC23766 and EHT1864 inhibited Rac activity in WPMY-1 cells. Survival of WPMY-1 cells ranged between 64 and 81% after incubation with NSC23766 (50 or 100 μM) or EHT1864 (25 μM) for 24 h. NSC23766 and EHT1864 induced cytoskeletal disorganization in WPMY-1 cells. Both inhibitors impaired the growth of WPMY-1 cells.
Rac may be a link connecting the control of prostate smooth muscle tone with proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Improvements in LUTS suggestive of BPH by Rac inhibitors appears possible.