Study design: Randomized, double-blind, crossover, sham-controlled trial. Objectives: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) leads to a significant reduction of spasticity in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI), but the physiological basis of this effect is still not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition of soleus motoneurons in SCI patients. Setting: Department of Neurology, Merano, Italy and TMS Laboratory, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria. Methods: Nine subjects with incomplete cervical or thoracic SCI received 5 days of daily sessions of real or sham rTMS applied over the contralateral M1. We compared the reciprocal inhibition, the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Spinal Cord Injury Assessment Tool for Spasticity at baseline, after the last session and 1 week later in the real rTMS and sham stimulation groups. Results: We found that real rTMS significantly reduced lower limb spasticity and restored the impaired excitability in the disynaptic reciprocal inhibitory pathway. Conclusions: In a small proof-of-concept study, rTMS strengthened descending projections between the motor cortex and inhibitory spinal interneuronal circuits. This reversed a defect in reciprocal inhibition after SCI, and reduced leg spasticity.