Posttraumatic kyphosis (PTK) is a possible consequence of a missed fracture, a wrong indication for conservative therapy or an inadequate surgical technique but PTK can also be a complication after adequate surgery. Avoidance of PTK is of importance because subsequent surgical therapy can be extensive. A thorough planning as well as surgical experience with anterior and posterior revision cases is necessary. The various types of osteotomy which allow correction of local as well as global deformities should also be mastered. Knowledge of the principles of sagittal balance and spinopelvic parameters are indispensable in the treatment of PTK. Our experience and results from the literature show that a good long-term outcome with limited complications can only be achieved when considering the biomechanical principles as well as restoration of sagittal balance.
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