Using human skin explants, we investigated the effects of two different sunscreen preparations containing a chemical UVB filter alone [sun protection factor (SPF) 5.2] or UVA+UVB filter [SPF 6.2] on sunburn cell formation, dendritic cell (DC) migration, CD86- and CD1a-positive cell number, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin (IL)-1, IL-10, and IL-12 production in the skin after irradiation with different doses of solar-simulated UV radiation. Sunscreen- or placebo-treated skin explants were irradiated with solar-simulated UV radiation at 0.5, 1, and 2 minimal erythematous dose equivalents (MEDE) (as determined in an in vivo human study) multiplied by the SPF of the placebo or sunscreens. After irradiation, skin explants were floated on RMPI medium for 48 h. Cells that had emigrated and the skin explants were histologically analyzed, and the soluble mediators were measured in the supernatants by ELISA. Exposure to UV radiation led to concentration-dependent increases in sunburn cell formation and TNFalpha production but a concentration-dependent decrease in DC migration and CD86- and CD1a-positive cell number in the epidermis. Both chemical sunscreens protected against those alterations. The immunoprotective capacity of the sunscreens correlated with their SPF but was independent of the sunscreensxxx UVA protection capacity, suggesting that UVA is not a major factor for immunosuppression under the conditions used in the model. UV irradiation did not significantly affect the vitality of emigrated DC; the expression of HLA, CD80, and lag on emigrated cells; the number of CD1a-positive cells in the dermis; or the production of IL-1, IL-10, and IL-12. We conclude that our model may be useful in determining the immunoprotective capacity of sunscreens.
Useful keywords (using NLM MeSH Indexing)
Aged, 80 and over
Cell Movement/radiation effects
Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
Ultraviolet Rays/adverse effects
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