Hippocampal abnormalities may coexist with malformations of cortical development (MCD). This cross-sectional MRI study aimed at categorizing hippocampal abnormalities in a large group of MCD and comparing MCD patients with (group W) and without (group W/O) hippocampal abnormalities.
Hippocampal anatomy, rotation, size, internal structure, and MRI signal alterations were assessed visually by 3 independent raters in patients with MCD and epilepsy. Four types of hippocampal abnormalities were examined in 220 patients (116 women, mean age 31 +/- 16.6, range 2-76 years): partially infolded/hypoplastic hippocampus (HH), hippocampal sclerosis (HS), malrotated hippocampus (MH), and enlarged hippocampus (EH). The commonest MCD in the cohort were focal cortical dysplasia (27%), polymicrogyria (PMG) (21%), developmental tumors (15%), and periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) (14%).
Hippocampal abnormalities were seen in 69/220 (31%) patients: HH in 34/69 (49%); HS in 18/69 (26%); MH in 15/69 (22%); and EH in 2/69 (3%). PNH (21/30 [70%]) and PMG (22/47 [47%]) were most commonly associated with hippocampal abnormalities. Compared to the W/O group, patients in the W group had a higher rate of learning disability (W 41/69 [59%] vs W/O 56/151 [37%]; p = 0.003) and delayed developmental milestones (W 36/69 [52%] vs W/O 53/151 [35%]; p = 0.025); groups did not differ otherwise with regard to clinical presentation. HH was associated with symptomatic generalized epilepsies (11/34 [32%]) and high rate of learning disability (27/34 [79%]), neurologic deficits (25/34 [73%]), and delayed developmental milestones (23/34 [68%]).
About a third of patients with malformations of cortical development had hippocampal abnormalities. Patients with hypoplastic hippocampus had the most severe clinical phenotype.
Useful keywords (using NLM MeSH Indexing)
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Malformations of Cortical Development/pathology*